Osteoporosis ( porous bones , from Greek: οστούν/ ostoun meaning bone and πόρος/ poros meaning pore ) is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture . The form of osteoporosis most common in women after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis . Primary type 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Finally, secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affect men and women equally. This form of osteoporosis results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids , when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP or GIOP). Osteoporosis risks can be reduced with lifestyle changes and sometimes medication; in people with osteoporosis, treatment may involve both. Lifestyle change includes diet and exercise, and preventing falls . Medication includes calcium , vitamin D , bisphosphonates and several others. Fall-prevention advice includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles, proprioception-improvement exercises; equilibrium therapies may be included. Exercise with its anabolic effect, may at the same time stop or reverse osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a component of the frailty syndrome .
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